Posts Tagged 'Recreational Maths'

That’s Maths Book Published

A book of mathematical articles, That’s Maths, has just been published. The collection of 100 articles includes pieces that have appeared in The Irish Times over the past few years, blog posts from this website and a number of articles that have not appeared before.


The book has been published by Gill Books and copies are available through all good booksellers in Ireland, and from major online booksellers. An E-Book is also available online.

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Recreational Mathematics is Fun

We all love music, beautiful paintings and great literature without being trained musicians, talented artists or accomplished writers. It is the same with mathematics: we can enjoy the elegance of brilliant logical arguments and appreciate the beauty of mathematical structures and symmetries without being skilled creators of new theorems. [See TM097, or search for “thatsmaths” at].


Harding Gallery. Image from Science Museum, London (

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Lateral Thinking in Mathematics

Many problems in mathematics that appear difficult to solve turn out to be remarkably simple when looked at from a new perspective. George Pólya, a Hungarian-born mathematician, wrote a popular book, How to Solve It, in which he discussed the benefits of attacking problems from a variety of angles [see TM094, or search for “thatsmaths” at].

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Bloom’s attempt to Square the Circle

The quadrature of the circle is one of the great problems posed by the ancient Greeks. This “squaring of the circle” was also an issue of particular interest to Leopold Bloom, the central character in James Joyce’s novel Ulysses, whom we celebrate today, Bloomsday, 16 June 2016 [see TM093, or search for “thatsmaths” at].


Joyce’s Tower, Sandycove, Co Dublin.

The challenge is to construct a square with area equal to that of a given circle using only the methods of classical geometry. Thus, only a ruler and compass may be used in the construction and the process must terminate in a finite number of steps.

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Mathematics Everywhere (in Blackrock Station)

Mathematics is everywhere. We are often unaware of it but, when we observe our environment consciously, we can see mathematical structures all around us.


This footbridge is a cornucopia of mathematical forms.

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The Imaginary Power Tower: Part II

This is a continuation of last week’s post: LINK

The complex power tower is defined by an `infinite tower’ of exponents:

\displaystyle Z(z) = {z^{z^{z^{.^{.^{.}}}}}} \,.

The sequence of successive approximations to this function is

z_0 = 1 \qquad z_{1} = z \qquad z_{2} = z^{z} \qquad \dots \qquad z_{n+1} = z^{z_n} \qquad \dots

If the sequence {\{z_n(z)\}} converges it is easy to solve numerically for a given {z }.

Pursuit-triangleIn Part I we described an attempt to fit a logarithmic spiral to the sequence {\{z_n(i)\}}. While the points of the sequence were close to such a curve they did not lie exactly upon it. Therefore, we now examine the asymptotic behaviour of the sequence for large {n}.

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The Imaginary Power Tower: Part I

The function defined by an `infinite tower’ of exponents,

\displaystyle y(x) = {x^{x^{x^{.^{.^{.}}}}}}

is called the Power Tower function. We consider the sequence of successive approximations to this function:

\displaystyle y_0 = 1 \qquad y_1 = x \qquad \dots \qquad y_{n+1} = x^{y_n} \,.

As {n\rightarrow\infty}, the sequence {\{y_n\}} converges for {e^{-e}<x<e^{1/e}}. This result was first proved by Euler. For an earlier post on the power tower, click here.

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