Atmospheric circulation systems have a wide variety of structures and there is no single mechanistic model that describes all their characteristics. However, we can construct simple kinematic models that capture some primary aspects of the flow. For simplicity, we will concentrate on idealized extra-tropical depressions. We will not consider hurricanes and tropical storms in any detail, because the effects of moisture condensation and convection dominate their behaviour.

## Archive for July, 2021

### Simple Models of Atmospheric Vortices

Published July 29, 2021 Occasional ClosedTags: Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics

An isometry on a metric space is a one-to-one distance-preserving transformation on the space. The Euclidean group is the group of isometries of -dimensional Euclidean space. These are all the transformations that preserve the distance between any two points. The group depends on the dimension of the space. For the Euclidean plane , we have the group , comprising all combinations of translations, rotations and reflections of the plane.

Is space continuous or discrete? Is it smooth, without gaps or discontinuities, or granular with a limit on how small a distance can be? What about time? Can time be repeatedly divided into smaller periods without any limit, or is there a shortest interval of time? We don’t know the answers. There is much we do not know about physical reality: is the universe finite or infinite? Are space and time arbitrarily divisible? Does our number system represent physical space and time? [TM215 or search for “thatsmaths” at irishtimes.com]. Continue reading ‘All Numbers Great and Small’

The realization that the circumference of a circle is related in a simple way to the diameter came at an early stage in the development of mathematics. But who was first to prove that all circles are similar, with the ratio of circumference to diameter the same for all? Searching in Euclid’s *Elements*, you will not find a proof of this. It is no easy matter to define the length of a curve? It required the genius of Archimedes to prove that is constant, and he needed to introduce axioms beyond those of Euclid to achieve this; see earlier post here.

Continue reading ‘Approximating the Circumference of an Ellipse’

### Kalman Filters: from the Moon to the Motorway

Published July 1, 2021 Irish Times ClosedTags: Algorithms

Before too long, we will be relieved of the burden of long-distance driving. Given the desired destination and access to a mapping system, electronic algorithms will select the best route and control the autonomous vehicle, constantly monitoring and adjusting its direction and speed of travel. The origins of the methods used for autonomous navigation lie in the early 1960s, when the space race triggered by the Russian launch of Sputnik I was raging [TM214 or search for “thatsmaths” at irishtimes.com].

Continue reading ‘Kalman Filters: from the Moon to the Motorway’