The late fifteenth century was an exciting time in Europe. Western civilization woke with a start after the slumbers of the medieval age. Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press arrived in 1450 and changed everything. Universities in Bologna, Oxford, Salamanca, Paris and elsewhere began to flourish. Leonardo da Vinci was in his prime and Christopher Columbus was discovering a new world.

## Posts Tagged 'History'

### The Beginning of Modern Mathematics

Published January 26, 2017 Occasional Leave a CommentTags: Algebra, History

### The Edward Worth Library: a Treasure Trove of Maths

Published December 15, 2016 Irish Times 1 CommentTags: History

*Infinite Riches in a Little Room*. Christopher Marlowe*.*

The Edward Worth Library may be unknown to many readers. Housed in Dr Steevens’ Hospital, Dublin, now an administrative centre for the Health Service Executive, the library was collected by hospital Trustee Edward Worth, and bequeathed to the hospital after his death in 1733. The original book shelves and cases remain as they were in the 1730s. The collection is catalogued online. [TM105 or search for “thatsmaths” at irishtimes.com].

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### Raphael Bombelli’s Psychedelic Leap

Published December 8, 2016 Occasional Leave a CommentTags: Algebra, History

The story of how Italian Renaissance mathematicians solved cubic equations has elements of skullduggery and intrigue. The method originally found by Scipione del Ferro and independently by Tartaglia, was published by Girolamo Cardano in 1545 in his book *Ars Magna*. The method, often called Cardano’s method, gives the solution of a depressed cubic equation *t*^{3}* + p t + q = *0. The general cubic equation can be reduced to this form by a simple linear transformation of the dependent variable. The solution is given by

Cardano assumed that the discriminant Δ = ( *q */ 2 )^{2} + ( *p */ 3 )^{3}, the quantity appearing under the square-root sign, was positive.

Raphael Bombelli made the psychedelic leap that Cardano could not make. He realised that Cardano’s formula would still give a solution when the discriminant was negative, provided that the square roots of negative quantities were manipulated in the correct manner. He was thus the first to properly handle complex numbers and apply them with effect.

### Taylor Expansions from India

Published November 24, 2016 Occasional Leave a CommentTags: Analysis, History

The English mathematician Brook Taylor (1685-1731) introduced the calculus of finite differences in his *Methodus Incrementorum Directa et Inversa*, published in 1715. This work contained the famous formula known today as Taylor’s formula. In 1772, Lagrange described it as “the main foundation of differential calculus” (Wikipedia: Brook Taylor). Taylor also wrote a treatise on linear perspective (see Fig. 1).

It is noteworthy that the series for , and were known to mathematicians in India about 400 years before Taylor’s time.

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### Marvellous Merchiston’s Logarithms

Published November 17, 2016 Irish Times Leave a CommentTags: Applied Maths, History, Numerical Analysis

Log tables, invaluable in science, industry and commerce for 350 years, have been consigned to the scrap heap. But logarithms remain at the core of science, as a wide range of physical phenomena follow logarithmic laws [TM103 or search for “thatsmaths” at irishtimes.com].

### Kepler’s Magnificent Mysterium Cosmographicum

Published October 13, 2016 Occasional Leave a CommentTags: Astronomy, Geometry, History

Johannes Kepler’s amazing book, *Mysterium Cosmographicum*, was published in 1596. Kepler’s central idea was that the distance relationships between the six planets (only six were known at that time) could be represented by six spheres separated by the five Platonic solids. For each of these regular polyhedra, there is an inner and an outer sphere. The inner sphere is tangent to the centre of each face and the outer sphere contains all the vertices of the polyhedron.

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### The next Hamilton

Published September 15, 2016 Irish Times Leave a CommentTags: Hamilton, History, Ireland

William Rowan Hamilton was Ireland’s greatest mathematician. His name is heard thousands of times every day throughout the world when researchers use the Hamiltonian function that encapsulates the dynamics of a vast range of physical systems. He achieved fame early in life and remains one of the all-time great scientists. [TM099, or search for “thatsmaths” at irishtimes.com].